Life & Style
Turn Down the Lights
A massive power outage in the Northeast in 2003 affected 55 million people, and it also provided an idea of what it might be like with less light at night. Here is a before and after picture of the blackout. (Photo by Todd Carlson courtesy of Dark-Sky )
The night vision of owls is second to none and a key to their survival. Their entire diet depends on capturing prey during night, when it is dark. These barred owls are temporary residents at A Place Called Hope, a raptor rescue organization in Killingworth. (Photo courtesy of A Place Called Hope )
Downlighting lamps such as those shown here not only keep skies dark, they also reduce glare that can interfere with human vision. (Photo by Steven Miller courtesy of International Dark-Skies Association )
This unshielded light creates glare at night. (Photo courtesy of Kathy Connolly )
The east coast of the United States is one of the most intensely lit areas on earth. Some states, such as Massachusetts, are considering legislation that could help reduce nighttime light. (Photo courtesy of NASA )
Pollinators have gotten a lot of attention lately, but when it comes to saving them, you don’t have to go on a quest for native plants or pick up a shovel or a rake. Anyone can help when they adopt some of the ideas put forward by the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) during Discover the Night week, Monday, April 5 to Monday, April 12.
Better yet, we can all petition our cities and towns to do the same. You’ll be helping all wildlife, not just bees and butterflies.
I first learned about the IDA organization when I researched the decline of fireflies. (A link to that story is in “more resources,” later in this story.) Artificial light at night interrupts the mating patterns of fireflies, and research shows that night lighting is strongly related to dwindling numbers of fireflies.
As for other wildlife, birds, and pollinators, the impacts are many, particularly for nocturnal species.
How many such species are affected?
According to IDA data, 100 percent of bats are nocturnal, as are 95 percent of amphibians, 65 percent of mammals, and 65 percent of invertebrates. Invertebrates include all insects, including pollinators. The category also includes spiders, worms, jellyfishes, mollusks, and more. Also, many birds hunt at night or migrate seasonally at night.
Night-fliers Become Trapped
Naturalist Jim Sirch, the education coordinator at Yale Peabody Museum in New Haven, cites studies on the adverse effects of bright nights.
“One study, for instance, shows how moths and other night-fliers become ‘trapped’ in orbit around night lights, where they often die of exhaustion or are eaten by a predator before morning,” he says.
Moths are important pollinators.
“Another study points out the additional stress place on amphibians,” he says.
“Replace your security light bulbs with yellow or amber LED lamps, which insects aren’t attracted to,” says Sirch. “Also, replace your fixtures with motion sensors so they won’t stay on all night.”
If the idea of turning down the outdoor lights raises concerns for personal safety, you might be surprised to learn that more light is not always better. The more thoughtful approach is to optimize, not maximize, outdoor lights.
IDA provides numerous examples of nighttime glare, which is unsafe for both drivers and pedestrians. According to the organization’s research, motion sensors, not light sensors, are far better safety enhancements. If there is no motion in the area, darkness prevails.
IDA provides approval for compliant lighting products, as well as guides to retailers and best practices, and, again, more information about that is offered in the resources section of this story.
Suffield resident Leo Smith first learned about the value of dark skies in 1999, when a 50-acre farm behind his long-time home was about to be developed. He and his family feared the beginning of “light trespass,” unwanted light from another property.
“I didn’t want glare disrupting the nighttime visual tranquility we’d always had,” he says.
He contacted the town and the developer.
“Luckily, the Town of Suffield was helpful. They ordered fully shielded streetlights. Then the developer ordered fully shielded lights for the garages next to us and behind us,” Smith says.
Note: If you are subject to unwanted night light, the IDA website offers a “Dear Neighbor” template to help you navigate this conversation.
Smith’s advocacy was a success and he got more involved with dark sky issues, eventually serving eight years as an IDA board member. During his tenure, he also worked with the Eversource manager of policy to advocate for dark-sky compliant practices.
“In 2016 Eversource made fully shielded lamps their default for all new and replacement streetlights in Connecticut,” he said.
A Work in Progress
Now, Smith works with municipalities around the country on this topic. He assisted Sustainable CT as they developed a dark skies component of their point system. The recommendations debuted in January 2021.
According to Sustainable CT Executive Director Lynn Stoddard, “We don’t have dark skies implementation stories yet. But several communities are working on dark skies programs, and we expect to have examples by the end of this year.”
Sustainable CT is a voluntary certification program for municipalities that provides a wide-ranging menu of best practices. Cities and towns choose actions, implement them, and earn points toward certification. Sustainable CT also provides grant funding opportunities.
In Massachusetts, state legislators are once again considering a measure that would require new light figures on public roadways to be fully shielded while also appropriate for night-time driving, along with other dark-skies friendly requirements for state and municipally funded projects. A similar bill died in the last legislative session, but there is renewed interest in it this year, along with bipartisan support.
Here’s the bottom line: Light pollution disrupts long-distance migrations, night hunting, mating patterns, nesting safety, and can create light traps. Night lights affect human health as well.
Pollinator season is in full swing, but you don’t have to turn earth or buy plants to give them an assist. Turn down the lights.
Here are three books that describe the problems and offer solutions, along with links to useful materials from IDA. Also find links to useful materials from IDA.
• International Dark Skies Association (IDA): www.DarkSky.org
• Dark-Sky outreach materials on personal safety, talking to your neighbors, and more: www.darksky.org/our-work/grassroots-advocacy/resources/public-outreach-materials
• Dark-Sky-approved products and practices: www.darksky.org/our-work/lighting/lighting-for-industry/fsa/fsa-products
• Sustainable CT recommended actions for dark skies listed in section 3.13: sustainablect.org/actions-certifications/actions/#open/action/67
• “Where Did All the Fireflies Go?” July 2020, article on zip06.com: visit zip06.com and search for the headline of the story in the search field.
“Steps to address light pollution to be considered by Mass. Legislature” on boston.com: visit www.boston.com/news/policy/2019/03/07/massachusetts-dark-sky-light-pollution-bill
• The Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting, book by Travis Longcore
• The End of Night, book by Paul Bogard
• Why We Sleep, book by Matthew Walker
Kathy Connolly thanks Leo Smith for his assistance with this article. Connolly writes and speaks on landscape ecology, horticulture, and land care. Her website is www.SpeakingofLandscapes.com.